Q.2 Homo Naledi

"Neo" skull

Ask:                Who or what is Homo Naledi?

Homo Naledi was a primitive ancestor of the current human existence.
Homo Naledi was named after the Rising Star Cave – “Naledi’ means star in SeSotho.

Acquire:         Was there a significance to discover these species.
The finds shed light on the origins and diversity of our species and apparently indicate deliberate deposition of bodies in a remote cave chamber, behavior that is thought to be limited to humans. The fossils were found in deep underground in a chamber named Dinaledi, or Chamber of Stars, and thus giving us an indication of the behavior of our ancestors.

Analyse:         What positive conclusions can be highlighted by these discoveries?naledi exhibits human and primitive features which is an evident of our existence. We can no longer assume that we know which species made which tools, or even assume that it was modern humans that were the innovators of some of these critical technological and behavioural breakthroughs in the archaeological record of Africa.

Apply:             How can these discoveries be applied to our modern generation?
John Hawks of the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Wits University, an author on all three papers, says: “I think some scientists assumed they knew how human evolution happened, but these new fossil discoveries, plus what we know from genetics, tell us that the southern half of Africa was home to a diversity that we’ve never seen anywhere else”

Assess:          What was Homo Naledi’s significant impact to the world and South Africa?
In an accompanying paper, led by Berger, entitled Homo naledi and Pleistocene hominin evolution in subequatorial Africa, the team discuss the importance of finding such a primitive species at such a time and place. They noted that the discovery will have a significant impact on our interpretation of archaeological assemblages and understanding which species made them.

[Online]. Available at: http://www.archaeologysa.co.za/news/2015/october/homo-naledi [Accessed 12 June 2017].

6.2 What ethical issues could arise as a result of digital socialisation?

Digital etiquette

Ethics include moral choices made by individuals in relation to the rest of the community, standards of acceptable behavior, and rules governing members of a profession. The under-mentioned ethical issues are what we need to be aware of when we look at our actions and how they can impact on society at large. These ethical issues are far-reaching, involving aspects such as:

  • Copyright access and infringement;
  • Freedoms and accountability;
  • Privacy and security;
  • Cultural perceptions and values;
  • Cross cultural communication;

DIGITAL CITIZENSHIP 2017 MODULE MANUAL First Edition (2015) Revised Edition 2

Q6.2 What ethical issues could arise as a result of digital socialisation?

Ethics include moral choices made by individuals in relation to the rest of the community, standards of acceptable behavior, and rules governing members of a profession. The under-mentioned ethical issues are what we need to be aware of when we look at our actions and how they can impact on society at large. These ethical issues are far-reaching, involving aspects such as:

  • Copyright access and infringement;
  • Freedoms and accountability;
  • Privacy and security;
  • Cultural perceptions and values;
  • Cross cultural communication;

DIGITAL CITIZENSHIP 2017 MODULE MANUAL First Edition (2015) Revised Edition 2

Q.5 The Digital Bill of Rights

rights

[Online]. Available at: https://www.google.co.za/search?q=digital+citizenship&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi39Yv-m9jTAhVIDsAKHbLiDoUQ_AUICigB&biw=1600&bih=740 [Accessed 15 June 2017].

  1. Freedom – digital citizens have a right to freedom of expression and opinion, as
    permitted by law.
  2. Openness – digital citizens have a right to access and use information resources as defined by the owner of the resource.
  3. Equality – digital citizens have the right to own their own digital identity and be equal on the internet.
  4. Participation – digital citizens have a right to not have their  digital  interactions  subject  to  surveillance  or  interception,  save  by  legitimate  order  by a court of competent jurisdiction
  5. Creativity – digital citizens have a right to create, grow and collaborate on the internet, and be held accountable for what they create
  6. Sharing – digital citizens have a right to Have the right to publish freely their expressions and opinions, as permitted by law.
  7. Accessibility – digital citizens have a right to uninterrupted services  and  reasonable  access to  contracted  digital services  and  resources  without hindrance or prejudice.
  8. Association – digital citizens have a right to undertake digital interactions with other parties as permitted by law.
  9. Privacy – digital citizens have a right to refuse to accept any unwanted digital interactions and to have privacy on the internet.
  10. Property – digital citizens have a right to own and decide the purpose and use of their own intellectual property.

[Online]. Available at:  http://www.eurim.org.uk/activities/ig/GTC-Metanoya_Proposal.pdf [Accessed 13 June 2017].

 

Q.9 Which four e-Commerce models are represented in the graphic above? What is unique about each of these e-Commerce business models?

E-Commerce or Electronics Commerce business models can generally be categorized in following categories.

  • Business – to – Business (B2B)
  • Consumer – to – Consumer (C2C)
  • Consumer – to – Business (C2B)
  • Business – to – Consumer (B2C)

According to Sam Mallikarjunan E-commerce can be uniquely described as the       following:

  1. Business-To-Business (B2B) refers to a business (the ecommerce retailer) selling directly to another business goods or services that are used by the recipient to power their
  2. In a Consumer-To-Consumer (C2C) model, the ecommerce website serves to facilitate the transaction between two consumers. Auction sites such as eBay (specifically when items are sold by individuals, rather than businesses listing products for auction – a semantic distinction which nonetheless fundamentally changes the relationship between the seller and buyer) are the classic examples of C2C ecommerce sites. Dating websites or sites like Etsy where individuals can sell directly to other individuals could be considered another example of C2C ecommerce.
  3. In a Consumer-To-Business (C2B) model, consumers sell products and services to businesses, instead of the other way around. For example, the consumers could list jobs-to-be-done or products they want and businesses compete for and complete the transaction through the C2B website, or a business could have a site where consumers can sell them things that they need.
  4. Ecommerce is commonly thought of as a business selling something through an online interface to a consumer – also known as Business To Consumer (B2C). The most widely known ecommerce businesses, such as Amazon Direct (which differs from Amazon as a whole – which we’ll touch on later) or Buy.com, Wal-Mart.com, Target.com, etc., is one where a retailer sells directly to an end user.

X2X Ecommerce: A Primer on 4 Different Business Models by Sam Mallikarjunan. [Online]. Available at: https://blog.hubspot.com/ecommerce/x2x-ecommerce-business-models  [Accessed 13 June 2017].

 

 

 

 

 

Q.7 Warn fellow students about the hazards of online activity and provide guidelines on online safety.

Digital divide

Hazards of online activity

HTML files may contain Javascript, ActiveX controls or macros that can allow an attacker to gain control of a PC or turn into a remotely controlled zombie. One of the oldest abuses of corporate Internet links, is the downloading of porn, gambling and other objectionable data, is another still-popular activity becoming a frequent source of infection via ‘drive-by downloads’ and ‘zero-day exploits. Random surfing of unknown, untrusted Web sites are becoming one of the most popular targets of attackers on the Web. Using any old Wi-Fi network, users are even more at risk if their wireless card uses the Wireless Access Protocol, which is notoriously simple to hack.

[Online]. Available at:  https://www.forbes.com/2006/10/25/microsoft-mozilla-malware-ent-tech-cx_sb_1025smallbizresource.html [Accessed 12 June 2017].

Guidelines on online safety.

  • Digital Security is protecting yourself on the Internet
  • Protecting your Identity
    • Do not give out personal information to people you do not know
    • Creating Strong Passwords
  • This protects you from people gaining access to your information
    • Virus and Malware Protection
  • Keeps your computer safe from harmful viruses and malware which can be used to steal your sensitive information and disrupt your computer’s performance
    • Phishing is a method that people use to access sensitive information like passwords and Credit Card info. (Digital Citizenship)
  • Use Surge Protectors and other devices to secure your hardware
    • Protects your computer from outside influences that can damage your device (Ribble & Bailey, 2007)
    • Lightning strikes
    • Power surges

[Online]. Available at:  https://cunedigitalcitizenship.wikispaces.com/Digital+Security [Accessed 12 June 2017].

Guidelines on online safety.

  • Treat other interacting parties with respect, regardless of income, ethnicity, gender, Physical location or disability;
  • Protect their digital identity from unauthorised use;
  • Be responsible for all actions taken with their digital identity;
  • Take appropriate action as soon as possible after discovering or suspecting that their digital identity has been compromised;
  • Take appropriate action as soon as possible after discovering that systems that they control are being used for the storage and/or transmission of unlawful material;
  • Comply with the relevant legislation, regulations, codes of conduct and best practice where they are digitally interacting

[Online]. Available at: http://www.eurim.org.uk/activities/ig/GTC-Metanoya_Proposal.pdf [Accessed 12 June 2017].